Water supply and sanitation has been a primary logistical challenge since the dawn of civilization. Major human settlements could initially develop only where fresh surface water was plentiful, such as near rivers or natural springs. Throughout history people have devised systems to make getting water into their communities and households, and disposing (and later also treating) of wastewater more convenient.
Learn more about the history of sewage.
Photo credit: Sean Davis via Foter.com / CC BY-ND